Click here to go to an on-line listing of events related to Varian Fry.

(right to left) Varian Fry briefing Andre Breton, Andre Masson, and Jacqueline Breton on escape routes.
Photo courtesy of the USHolocaust Memorial Museum

Resources. . .

There are a number of sources of additional information available on Varian Fry, his life and the impact of his actions.

Varian Fry himself wrote two memoirs about his experiences in France. In 1945, he published a book about his experiences entitled Surrender on Demand which has been reprinted (ISBN 1-55566-209-9) (see Books, below).

Assignment:Rescue, a revised version created especially for young readers, was published in 1967 by Scholastic Press. It was reissued, with a new introduction, in 1993 in conjunction with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's exhibition of the same name and is still available in print (ISBN 0-590-46970-3) . Large book store chains such as Barnes and Noble usually have Assignment:Rescue in stock.


A number of other web sites contain information on Varian Fry. Links to them are provided below:

DISCIPLE WITHOUT A PROFIT - Vol6/No1/96 by Walter Sorell

Articles about fellow artists. Finding Aid. Feuchtwanger Memorial Library. University of Southern California


War Seen from the Grassroot Perspective. A poem by Hermann Friedrich Honold, ex-combattant

Catalog for Congressional Bills Database, 104th Congress

The Seattle Times - Feb. 7, 1996



Hidden Hands - Painting with the Enemy. A war on two fronts




Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die? by Lawrence A. Jarvik (1982)

Chambon Foundation web site for Fry-related articles, materials and links


Assembled by Anita Kassof, US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC.


1a. Memoirs

Fittko, Lisa. "Escape through the Pyrenees". Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL. 1991 (ISBN 0-8101-0989-1).

Fry, Varian. "Assignment:Rescue". Scholastic, Inc., New York, NY. 1968. (Obtainable at Barnes and Noble bookstores. ISBN 0-590-46970-3).

Fry, Varian. "Surrender on Demand". Johnson Books, 1880 S. 57th St., Boulder, CO. 1997 (ISBN 1-55566-209-9).

Fry, Varian. "La Liste Noire". In French. Plon, Paris. 1999 (ISBN 2-259-18972-5).

Gold, Mary Jane. "Crossroads Marseilles 1940". Doubleday & Co., New York, NY. 1980 (Out of print). French translation "Marseille, Anne'e 40." Editions Phe'bus, Paris. 2001 (ISBN 2-85940-717-0). Preface by Edmonde Charles-Roux, Postscript by Pierre Sauvage. (for more information see

Meyerhof, Walter. "IN THE SHADOW OF LOVE, Stories from my Life." Fithiam Press. 2002 (ISBN 1-56474-393-4) See web site.

1b. Books about Varian Fry

Isenberg, Sheila. "A HERO OF OUR OWN, the Story of Varian Fry". Random House, New York. 2001. (ISBN 0-37550221-1).(See for more information)

Marino, Andy. "A Quiet American; the Secret War of Varian Fry". St. Martin's Press, New York, NY. 1999 (ISBN 0-312-20356-X). Also published under the title "The American Pimpernel; the Secret War of Varian Fry", Hutchinson, United Kingdom. 1999 (ISBN 009-1800-53-6).

Rosenberg, Justus. "Varian Fry biography." American National Biography Online, Oxford University Press, New York. 2002.

2. History - Vichy France.

Marrus, Michael R. and Paxton, Robert O. "Vichy France and the Jews". Schocken Books, New York, NY. 1983.

Paxton, Robert O. "Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-44." Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY. 1972.

Ryan, Donna F. "The Holocaust and the Jews of Marseilles: The Enforcement of Anti-Semitic Policies in Vichy France." University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL. 1996.

Zuccottii, Susan. "The Holocaust, the French, and the Jews." Basic Books, New York, NY. 1993.

3. History - America and the Holocaust.

Breitman, Richard and Kraut, Alan M. "American Refugee Policy and European Jewry, 1933-1945." Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. 1987.

Feingold, Henry. "The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust 1938-1945." Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. 1970.

Morse, Arthur D. "While Six Million Died: A Chronicle of American Apathy." Secker & Warburg, London. 1968.

Wyman, David S. "Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis, 1938-1941." Pantheon Books, New York, NY. 1985.

4. History - Refugee Emigration.

Baron, Stephanie with Sabine Eckmann. "Exiles and Emigres. The Flight of European Artists from Hitler." Los Angeles and New York: Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, 1997.

Coser, Lewis A. "Refugee Scholars in America: Their Impact and their Experiences." Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Heilbut, Anthony. "Exiled in Paradise: German Refugee Artists and Intellectuals from the 1930s to the Present." Viking Press, New York, NY. 1962.

Jackman, Jarrell C. and Borden, Carla M., eds. "The Muses Flee Hitler: Cultural Transfer and Adaptation, 1930-1945." Smithonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 1983. (See especially, McCabe, Cynthia Jaffee "Wanted by the Gestapo, Saved by America - Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee." p. 79).

Sawin, Martika. "Surrealism in Exile and the Beginning of the New York School." The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. 1995.

Von zur Muehlen, Patrik. "Fluchtweg Spanien-Portugal." (In German.) J.H.W. Dietz, Publ., In der Raste 2, 5300 Bonn 1, Germany. 1992.


Berman, Elizabeth Kessin, "Moral Triage or Cultural Salvage? The Agendas of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee," In Baron, Stephanie with Sabine Eckmann. Exiles and Emigres. The Flight of European Artists from Hitler. Los Angeles and New York: Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, 1997, p. 99.

Carroll, Donald. "Escape from Vichy." American Heritage, Vol. 34, No. 4, June/July 1983, p. 82.

Carroll, Donald. "The Saviour." The Independent Magazine, London, March 11, 1995, p. 32.

Hughes, Robert. "A Cultural Gift from Hitler." Time, March 24, 1997, ART section. (See also Time, letter by Walter Meyerhof, April 21, 1997).

Kazin, Alfred. "Homage to Varian Fry." The New Republic, Feb. 9,1998, p. 27.

Pfefferman, Naomi. "The American Schindler." Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles, February 28, 1997, p. 10.

Price, Sean. "Rescued from the Holocaust." (A middle school play about Varian Fry's mission.) Junior Scholastic, April 27, 1998, p. 10.

Sauvage, Pierre. "Varian Fry in Marseille", in John K. Roth and Elisabeth Maxwell, eds. Remembering for the Future: the Holocaust in an Age of Genocide. Palgrave, London and New York. 2001.

Sauvage, Pierre. "Americans Who Cared", in Zev Garber and Richard Libowitz, eds. Peace, In Deed: Essays in Honor of Harry James Cargas. Atlanta Scholars Press. 1998. (for more information, see

Trueheart, Charles. "Smuggler of The Lost Souls." The Washington Post, May 16, 2000, C1.

Urrows, Henry and Elisabeth. "Varian Fry." Harvard Magazine, March-April 1990, P. 43.


Emergency Rescue Committee files, Deutsches Exilarchiv 1933-1945, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, Adickesallee 1, D-60322 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. [From U.S., Tel. 011-49-69-1525-1900, Fax 011-49-69-1525-1959, E-mail eckert@dbf.dd].

Unitarian Service Committee files and lists of clients of American Relief Committee, Marseilles, Andover-Harvard Theological Library, Manuscripts and Archives Office, Harvard Divinity School, 45 Francis Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138. [Tel. (617) 496-5153, Fax (617) 496-4111, E-mail].

Varian Fry Collection, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Butler Library, Sixth Floor, Columbia University, 535 114th Street, New York, NY 10027. [Tel. (212) 854-8481, Fax (212) 854-1365].

Photographer YLLA. "Varian Fry in the Offices of the Centre Americain de Secours, Marseilles, 1941." Photographic Archives, The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53rd Street, New York, NY 10019. [Tel. (212) 708-9535, Fax (212) 333-1215].

The Chambon Foundation maintains links to archival collections relevant to Varian Fry and some of his coworkers.


Alles, Karen. "Das Letzte Visum (The Last Visa)". 1988. Germanand English versions, 1 1/2 hours each. Hessischer Rundfunk, Bertramstrasse 8, 60320 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Tel. 011-49-69-155-2029.

Bundschuh, Joerg. "Villa Air-Bel. Varian Fry in Marseilles, 1940-41". 1987. German version and English version, 1 1/2 hours each. Kick Film GMBH, Atlanta Haus, Gotzinger Strasse 48, 81371 Munich, Germany. Tel. 011-49-89-7471-030, Fax 011-49-89-7471-0366.

Jarvik, Lawrence A. "Who Shall Live and Who Shall Die". 1982. See WEB RESOURCES.

Kaplan, Richard. "The Exiles". 1989. Parts 1 and 2, 1 hour each. Richard Kaplan Production, 290 West End Avenue, New York, NY 10023. Tel. and Fax (212) 787-0258. E-mail

Kaplan, Richard. "Assignment: Rescue, the story of Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee," narrated by Meryl Streep. 26 min. 1997. Also available as educational kit, together with teacher and student guides and Fry autobiography "Assignment: Rescue". Videotransform, 930 Commercial Street, Palo Alto, CA 94303-4907. Tel. (650) 494-1529; order only Tel. (800) 253-7678; Fax (650) 494-7219. See for more details. Colleges and other institutions of higher learning can obtain a higher level educational kit at a minimum cost by sending an e-mail to or by calling (845) 758-9389. Video also available in French (SECAM or NSTC format) under the title "Mission: Sauvetage, Varian Fry et l'Emergency Rescue Committee". 1999.

Kaplan, Richard. "VARIAN AND PUTZI, A Twentieth Century Tale". 2002. Richard Kaplan Productions, 290 West End Ave., New York, NY 10023. Tel. and Fax (212) 787-0258. E-mail

Okefuna, David. "The Artists' Schindler." 1997. 30 and 50 minute versions. RM Arts, 46 Great Marlborough Street, London W1. Tel. 011-44-171-439-2637; Fax 011-44-439-2316.

Wehn-Damisch, Teri. "Marseilles-New York: L'Etat de Piege ou La Filiere Marseillaise." 1986-87. In French. Teri Wehn-Damisch, 5 rue Servandoni, 75006 Paris, France. Tel. 011-331-43-54-63-33, Fax 011-331-43-29-74-41.

Other full-length videos presently in production:

Sauvage, Pierre. "And Crown Thy Good: Varian Fry in Mareilles." Chambon Foundation, 8033 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90046. Tel (323) 650-1774, Fax (323) 654-4689. (See web site)


Streisand, Barbra, Sis Corman, and Edward Wessex, Executive Producers. Lionel Chetwynd, Director. "Varian's War", starring William Hurt, Julia Ormond, Matt Craven, Alan Arkin, and Lynn Redgrave. Showtime TV. 2001. See,

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